The s introduced new profiles who contributed insights to the field. Turner and Francis Lu. Cortright  and Sovatsky  made contributions to transpersonal psychotherapy. Both authors published their primary work as part of the SUNY-series. Note b Lukoff, Turner and Lu, writers in the clinical field, were the authors behind the proposal for a new diagnostic category to be included in the DSM-manual of the American Psychiatric Association.
The category was called "Psychoreligious or psychospiritual problem" and was approved by the Task Force on DSM-IV in , after changing its name to Religious or spiritual problem. While Wilber has been considered an influential writer and theoretician in the field of transpersonal psychology, his departure from the field was becoming more obvious during the decade of the s. In he formed Integral Institute. On the organizational side the decade was marked by a steady increase in membership for the Association for Transpersonal Psychology , stabilizing at approximately members in the early nineties.
The beginning of the s was marked by the revisionary project of Jorge Ferrer , which is considered to be an important contribution to the field. In the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology announced that it was changing its name to Sofia University , a change that included a new profile in the academic landscape, with an expanded graduate program featuring computer science and business.
Several psychological schools, or branches, have influenced the field of transpersonal psychology. Among these schools we find the Analytical psychology of Carl Jung ,    the psychosynthesis of Roberto Assagioli ,   and the humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow.
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William J. Barry established transpersonal psychology as a valid action research method in the field of education through his Ph. Other transpersonal disciplines, such as transpersonal anthropology and transpersonal business studies , are listed in transpersonal disciplines. Transpersonal art is one of the disciplines considered by Boucovolas,  in listing how transpersonal psychology may relate to other areas of transpersonal study. In writing about transpersonal art, Boucovolas begins by noting how, according to Breccia and also to the definitions employed by the International Transpersonal Association in , transpersonal art may be understood as art work which draws upon important themes beyond the individual self, such as the transpersonal consciousness.
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This makes transpersonal art criticism germane to mystical approaches to creativity. Transpersonal art criticism, as Boucovolas notes, can be considered that which claims conventional art criticism has been too committed to stressing rational dimensions of art and has subsequently said little on art's spiritual dimensions, or as that which holds art work has a meaning beyond the individual person.
Certain aspects of the psychology of Carl Jung , as well as movements such as music therapy and art therapy , may also relate to the field. Boucovolas' paper cites Breccia as an early example of transpersonal art, and claims that at the time his article appeared, integral theorist Ken Wilber had made recent contributions to the field. More recently, the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, in , Volume 37, launched a special edition devoted to the media, which contained articles on film criticism that can be related to this field.
Other fields of study, that are related to transpersonal psychology, include near-death studies , parapsychology and humanistic psychology. The major findings of near-death studies are represented in the Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology ,  and in The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Transpersonal Psychology. There is also a strong connection between the transpersonal and the humanistic approaches to psychology, as indicated by the sourcebook of Donald Moss.
A few commentators    have suggested that there is a difference between transpersonal psychology and a broader category of transpersonal theories, sometimes called transpersonal studies. According to Friedman  this category might include several approaches to the transpersonal that lie outside the frames of science. However, according to Ferrer  the field of transpersonal psychology is "situated within the wider umbrella of transpersonal studies". Transpersonal psychology may also, sometimes, be associated with New Age beliefs and pop psychology. Rowan  even states that "The Transpersonal is not the New Age".
Although some consider that the distinction between transpersonal psychology and the psychology of religion , is fading e. The Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Spirituality , there is still generally considered to be a clear distinction between the two .
Much of the focus of psychology of religion is concerned with issues that wouldn't be considered 'transcendent' within transpersonal psychology, so the two disciplines do have quite a distinct focus. The transpersonal perspective spans many research interests. The following list is adapted from the Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology  and includes: the contributions of spiritual traditions such as Taoism , Hinduism , Yoga , Buddhism , Kabbalah , Christian mysticism , Shamanism , and Native American healing to psychiatry and psychology; meditation research and clinical aspects of meditation; psychedelics ; parapsychology ; anthropology ; diagnosis of religious and spiritual problem; offensive spirituality and spiritual defenses; phenomenology and treatment of Kundalini ; psychotherapy ; near-death experience ; religious cults; psychopharmacology ; guided imagery; breathwork ; past life therapy ; ecological survival and social change ; aging and adult spiritual development.
The research of transpersonal psychology is based upon both quantitative and qualitative methods,  but some commentators have suggested that the main contribution of transpersonal psychology has been to provide alternatives to the quantitative methods of mainstream psychology. The transpersonal psychology of Ken Wilber is often mentioned as an influential theoretical framework for the field. Several commentators    note that he has distanced himself from the transpersonal field in favour of a new model that he calls integral.
However, his psychological model still remains influential to the practice and development of transpersonal psychology,  and transpersonal themes remain a central part of his own work. His initial contribution to the understanding of human development was a spectrum-model of psychology,      originally outlined in his first books, The Spectrum of Consciousness  and The Atman Project - A Transpersonal View of Human Development Wilber's spectrum of consciousness consists of three broad developmental categories: the prepersonal or pre-egoic, the personal or egoic, and the transpersonal or trans-egoic.
That is, a confusion of transpersonal progression with prepersonal regression. Wilbers understanding of the levels of consciousness, or reality, ranging from matter to body to mind to soul to spirit,  or from prepersonal to personal to transpersonal,   is often referred to as the "Great Chain of Being". This overarching framework, that is adapted from the "perennial philosophy" of the worlds great spiritual traditions, is later reformulated by Wilber as the "Great Nest of Being". The s marked a move into the world of integral ideas for Wilber.
According to commentators he stopped referring to his work as transpersonal, in favor of the term integral , by the mids. The combination of quadrants and levels resulting in an all-quadrant, all-level approach. The theory also included the concept of holon, "a whole that is simultaneously part of some other whole", and holarchy, "hierarchical holons within holons". Similar to the model presented by Wilber is the information theory of consciousness presented by John Battista.
Battista suggests that the development of the self-system, and of human psychology, consists of a series of transitions in the direction of enhanced maturity and psychological stability, and in the direction of transpersonal and spiritual categories. His model presents a series of developmental tasks with corresponding levels of consciousness and psychopathology, and discusses therapeutic interventions in relation to the different levels and transitions. Michael Washburn presents a model of human development that is informed by psychoanalysis, object-relations theory, and the depth psychology of the Jungian perspective.
According to Washburn transpersonal development follows the principles of a spiraling path. Later in life this contact is weakened, and the prepersonal stage is followed by a new stage of development where the ego is dissociated from the dynamic ground. However, later in life there is the possibility of a re-integration with the dynamic ground, a trans-egoic stage. A regression that paves the way for transcendence,  and a fully embodied life. Washburn has contrasted his own perspective, which he calls spiral-dynamic, to the developmental theory of Ken Wilber, which he calls structural-hierarchical.
Stanislav Grof, on the other hand, operates with a cartography consisting of three kinds of territories: the realm of the sensory barrier and the personal unconscious described by psychoanalysis , the perinatal or birth-related realm organizing principles for the psyche , and the transpersonal realm. His early findings,  which were based on observations from LSD research, uncovered four major types of experiences that, according to Grof, correspond to levels in the human unconscious: 1 Abstract and aesthetic experiences; 2 Psychodynamic experiences; 3 Perinatal experiences; 4 Transpersonal experiences.
Grof returns to many of these findings in later books. Perinatal levels, which correspond to the theories of Otto Rank, is the area of physical pain and agony, dying and death, biological birth, aging, disease and decrepitude. Transpersonal levels, corresponding to the theories of C. Jung, is the area of a number of spiritual, paranormal and transcendental experiences, including ESP phenomena, ego transcendence and other states of expanded consciousness. In order to bring structure to the psychodynamic and perinatal levels Grof introduces two governing systems, or organizing principles: The COEX-system, which is the governing system for the psychodynamic level, and the Basic Perinatal Matrices, which represent the birthing stages and is the governing system for the perinatal level.
Grof applies regressional modes of therapy originally with the use of psychedelic substances, later with other methods in order to seek greater psychological integration. The idea of development is also featured in the spiritual psychotherapy and psychology of Stuart Sovatsky.
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According to Sovatsky these are maturational processes, affecting body and soul. According to his model a number of advanced yogic processes are said to assist in "maturation of the ensouled body". The scholarship of Jorge Ferrer introduces a more pluralistic and participatory perspective on spiritual and ontological dimensions.
In his revision of transpersonal theory Ferrer questions three major presuppositions, or frameworks for interpretation, that have been dominant in transpersonal studies. These are the frameworks of Experientalism the transpersonal understood as an individual inner experience ; Inner empiricism the study of transpersonal phenomena according to the standards of empiricist science ; and perennialism the legacy of the perennial philosophy in transpersonal studies.
As an alternative to these major epistemological and philosophical trends Ferrer focuses upon the great variety, or pluralism, of spiritual insights and spiritual worlds that can be disclosed by transpersonal inquiry. According to Ferrer "the ocean of emancipation has many shores". That is, different spiritual truths can be reached by arriving at different spiritual shores. The second aspect of his revision, "the participatory turn", introduces the idea that transpersonal phenomena are participatory and co-creative events.
He defines these events as "emergences of transpersonal being that can occur not only in the locus of an individual, but also in a relationship, a community, a collective identity or a place. Ferrer's approach to participatory thinking has been taken-up in the context of psychoanalysis. Drawing from Ferrer's criticisms of perennialism, Robin S. Brown   adopts the participatory paradigm as a means to fostering clinical pluralism.
In their outline of transpersonal therapy they emphasize that the goals of therapy includes both traditional outcomes, such as symptom relief and behaviour change, as well as work at the transpersonal level, which may transcend psychodynamic issues. Both Karma Yoga and altered states of consciousness are part of the transpersonal approach to therapy.
Several authors in the field have presented an integration of western psychotherapy with spiritual psychology, among these Stuart Sovatsky and Brant Cortright. Besides drawing on the insights of post-freudians, such as D. Winnicott, Sovatsky integrates his approach to psychotherapy with an expanded understanding of body and mind, informed by the philosophy of Yoga. Cortright, on the other hand, has reviewed the field of transpersonal psychotherapy and the major transpersonal models of psychotherapy, including Wilber, Jung, Washburn, Grof and Ali, as well as existential, psychoanalytic, and body-centered approaches.
He also presents a unifying theoretical framework for the field of transpersonal psychotherapy, and identifies the dimension of human consciousness as central to the transpersonal realm. He also addresses clinical issues related to meditation, spiritual emergency, and altered states of consciousness. Instead he suggests that these two lines of development are intertwined, and that they come to the foreground with shifting emphasis.
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