Planning to conduct a situational assessment is extremely important as it will provide key information for response efforts. In the event of a disaster, the research enterprise will need to consider the communication of public health and safety issues that may arise to the appropriate external agencies. Additionally, the research enterprise could be either providers. Generally, resource information at this level of granularity is not held at the institutional level and is rarely fresh in any case. It is important for the research enterprise to be in the best situation to collect and provide this type of information.
The fact that the institution also has the duty to be the point of contact for external funding agencies cannot be overemphasized. Federal assistance is only available if there has been a disaster declaration. As is described further in Chapter 9 , there is much opportunity for improvements in the disaster reimbursement processes. In any case, establishing points of contact with agencies and funders, keeping them apprised of the situation, and confirming with them what information will be needed in order to pursue a claim at a time when the information can be collected will be important to the subsequent recovery and rebuilding effort.
The institution may be eligible for FEMA reimbursement funding for certain emergency response activities within the first 48 hours after the disaster, and it is important to keep good records since orders may not be tracked via normal processes Stancel, While it may seem counterintuitive that the research enterprise devote time and effort to planning to recover from a disaster before it even occurs, this turns out not to be the case.
Previous disasters have taught a powerful lesson: actions that are taken pre-disaster that inform recovery will significantly accelerate the recovery process. Regardless of the size of a disruptive incident or disaster, an affected research enterprise will have to recognize its needs and then coordinate and manage its resources to satisfy those needs and recover. In a large-scale disaster, this process is arduous, and without extensive recovery planning, it can become uncoordinated, frustrating, and a source of additional problems.
The approach can also be applied in recovery planning for the research enterprise. The concepts outlined in the NDRF revolve around the ideal of emerging from the disaster recovery process with an institution. Rather than damaged buildings and infrastructure simply being rebuilt as they were, they can be strengthened and improved. The approach to providing assistance to disaster survivors is holistic—it is geared to providing a continuum of care that addresses both physical and emotional needs.
The major value of the NDRF is its emphasis on preparation and planning before a disaster occurs. The ability of a research enterprise to accelerate its recovery from a disaster begins with its planning efforts in the pre-disaster preparation and mitigation phase, plus its ability to build capacity to undertake recovery activities. Pre-disaster preparation activities that improve coordination among response partners accelerate the disaster recovery process by speeding up the response phase, which saves lives and minimizes property damage.
Pre-disaster mitigation actions can significantly reduce risks, making the research enterprise safer for people and minimizing the level of damage that occurs. Having a business continuity plan in place before a disaster enables timely decision making to help preserve critical assets, which reduces the downtime of the research enterprise and the costs that would be incurred if those assets were destroyed and had to be replaced.
Building recovery capacity enables the research enterprise to direct the right amount of resources to save its prioritized assets and infrastructure, which speeds up the recovery process and decreases losses FEMA, c.
Supply chain risk management best practices and business continuity
Recovery efforts should, at a minimum, ensure that institutions become more resilient than they were before the disaster. Recovery operations provide for basic needs and restore the organization. There are two phases in the recovery phase. During the first phase, infrastructure is examined, and repairs are conducted to restore water, power, communication and other utilities. The second phase includes returning to normal functions and addressing future disasters. University of Oregon, Although it is clear that the authority having jurisdic-. To expedite disaster recovery in the future, there may be need for proactive engagement by academic enterprise leaders in national discussions with the National Fire Protection Association NFPA and other building owners and officials to establish a national standard that will identify the conditions under which.
Dungan, , p. Norman Mortell and Sam Nicholls , p. F23 characterized the challenge of rapid recovery in this way:. The return to normalcy is a long-term endeavor frequently overlooked in the haste to treat the cause of the disaster and only considered when other demands have lessened. The authors also note that unfortunately it is not possible to thoughtfully consider recovery needs after the fact, because recovery is usually set in motion immediately following disaster response.
In response to the significant economic damage inflicted by the year flood that affected Cedar Rapids, Iowa, including the University of Iowa in nearby Iowa City, these communities developed broad recovery and reinvestment plans to not simply recover from a disaster but to improve the quality of public health and education and to provide enhanced economic opportunities to grow more resilient communities Connerly et al.
The development of new and continuously improving recovery plans contributes to the successful recovery of the research enterprise in the aftermath of a disaster. Successful recovery will rely on prioritizing protection and support for the people and research animals involved in research activities, the research facilities and associated infrastructure systems, and the research-related assets. Unfortunately, the collective understanding of the plan implementation phase of post-disaster recovery—what actually gets funded, how it is executed, and what does and does not succeed—is far more limited than the understanding of the planning processes.
This, in part, reflects the reality that government programs rarely work in practice as envisioned. It also reflects some of the continued challenges in the collective understanding of the recovery process itself: the observed conflicts between speed and quality as measures of recovery success and the uncertainty about how and when recovery ends and normal community processes resume. APA, , p. At the same time, following a disaster some researchers may continue to function in numerous locations virtually if they have connectivity and access to data storage; others may not be able to function, as they may only be able to work with specialized equipment or in controlled environments damaged by the disaster event.
For each scientist, resumption of his or her work is disrupted, but in different ways UC Berkeley, Developed specifically for a California seismic disaster, the following illustration, Figure , provides a summary of the sequence of complex and overlapping recovery tasks over days, weeks, months, and years Mader and Toylor, Whether in a city or in an institution, damage assessments, infrastructure and building facilities renewal, social and economic recovery, decisive leadership, and the exceptional management of financial and operational recovery serve as the foundation for successful disaster recovery.
The NDRF is an indicator that disaster recovery is becoming a more prominent priority for the nation. The recovery plan sets forth the procedures necessary to restore and rebuild following a disaster. Recovery begins with recovery activation, but it may be preceded by a preliminary assessment of physical damages and.
At the same time, informed and regular communications within and beyond the institution, validating financial needs balanced by financial resource availability, and the establishment of a disaster recovery team are critical early-phase activities. A recovery plan needs to clearly identify decision-making authority in activating disaster recovery procedures FEMA, c. Each phase of the disaster recovery process will require leadership by a recovery management team composed of senior institutional officials who possess effective and demonstrated leadership skills, who will provide transparent and regular communications, and who are empowered with sufficient authority to proactively identify and promptly allocate resources to support the completion of the prioritized recovery actions identified in the emergency operations,.
Decision-making criteria may include a required level of damage, the anticipated human and financial resources needed to implement recovery, or key recovery time lines required to return to pre-disaster operational levels APA, Another key criterion may be that activation can occur only after the research enterprise has confirmed with first responders and other trained personnel the life safety of people and research animals as well as the condition of facilities.
As previously discussed, response and recovery efforts often merge together. Following the completion of disaster response measures, and depending upon the institutional emergency management structure and protocols, trained facilities, information technology IT , public safety, and environmental health and safety staff and vendors engaged with or without previously executed MAAs may be dispatched to assess the conditions of building structures, interior and exterior infrastructure systems, the life safety and environmental health conditions; to secure facilities from unauthorized entry; and, only while accompanied by laboratory animal care professionals, to survey research animal facilities.
These assessments will be evaluated to determine preliminary recovery tasks consistent with the priorities established in the approved departmental business continuity plans and to secure facilities or to initiate space relocation protocols. Following the protection of people and laboratory animals and the preservation of critical research-related assets, the repair and restoration of communications systems remain one of the highest priorities in the immediate aftermath of a disaster.
It is very important to contact the appropriate scientific program officials and grants management specialists, whether by phone, e-mail, or fax, as soon as possible after a disaster in order to notify them of potential delays, possible research setbacks, or relocations of research. For the people of the research enterprise, the short-term impacts can be cumulative and hard refer to Chapter 2. Damage to the work envi-. The institution must be supportive psychologically and financially in order to allow researchers to restart or continue their critical research.
A successful recovery process addresses the full range of psychological needs of the people of the research enterprise as it recovers from the disaster through the provision of support, counseling, screening, and treatment as needed FEMA, c. For example, after the loss of research animals as a result of Tropical Storm Allison, UTHSC-H recognized that this incident required special attention to the mental and physical well-being of the animal care and use staff Goodwin and Donaho Psychological counseling was made available, and about 5 months after the incident, a memorial service was held for the research animals that died.
NYU Langone conducted peer outreach to understand the psychological needs of the research community and respond with counseling and other available aid. The research enterprise can promote a story that will sustain the recovery effort—the story of the losses and damage, in particular, the irreplaceable research data and unique animal models lost. It is essential to tell the story via all internal avenues and media, as appropriate. In the mid-term phase, clean-up, repair, restoration, or demolition of existing research enterprise buildings and infrastructure roads, sanitary and storm water, potable water, natural gas, fiber optics, electrical power, and other utility services continues.
Intermediate actions, including the relocation of animals and research samples when necessary, may require transportation resources, available personnel, and funding for storage spaces and leased housing areas Goodwin and Donaho, Temporary facilities for conducting research for the long term should be determined and negotiated during this intermediate recovery period.
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The institution should be informed of the urgency during this time of recovery and provide all the needed resources for substantial and critical program continuity. The assessment of external infrastructure systems serving the research enterprise may continue, while accountability for procuring and managing construction assistance for system repair among private- and public-sector utilities remains beyond the control of the research enterprise.
The financial recovery plan should establish dedicated disaster accounts to monitor all institutional expenditures for potential future reimbursement, and long-term capital needs based on the earlier operational and capital damage assessments begin to be integrated into long-range capital plans. Chapter 9 discusses the financial considerations in more detail.
For the individual researcher, the weeks following a disaster require a detailed evaluation as well as an objective analysis of the status and future of ongoing research projects.
Not only must the researcher reevaluate research data to determine whether continuing or starting over is the best option, but a cascading series of near-term decisions will confront the researcher—for example, am I able to recover my genetically engineered animal models if they were not cryopreserved in an offsite location, or do I need to institute an intense breeding program from foundation stock, and is foundation breeding stock available in the time frame required? Funding can be available from research sponsors and must be maximized.
Sources of money may also include insurance claims, FEMA funds, state funds, institutional administrative and financial support,.
These claims will take a long time and should be initiated during this intermediate recovery time frame Goodwin and Donaho, Academic research institutions may experience long-term building closures as a result of a disaster. The downtime estimate is dependent not only on the availability of materials and workers for repair work, but also the time it takes for engineering reviews and repair plans, and the process of negotiating with insurers and FEMA for repair funds Comerio, Past disasters have shown that repair depends on the flow of money, and the flow of money after a disaster depends on politics Comerio, Comerio found that even in an earthquake with moderately severe ground motion, about 20 percent of the laboratory space at UC Berkeley could be closed for repairs for nearly 2 years.
In 24 hours after the Loma Prieta earthquake, Stanford University had to decide if the university could remain open. Two dozen buildings were closed. Stanford University decided on quick repairs to three academic buildings and four dormitories, using unrestricted gifts and general funds, because the buildings were deemed essential for continued operations.
The remainder of the closed buildings stayed closed for years. Additionally, as a result of Hurricane Sandy, NYU Langone had to relocate about 90 researchers and 13, rodent cages long term Bloom, Although each academic institution will have specific recovery challenges, each must acknowledge that their downtime includes the time necessary to plan, finance, and complete repairs on facilities damaged Comerio, Research facilities reoccupation policies and procedures will have already begun or will now begin to be implemented as research teams return to repaired facilities or new replacement facilities.
The reimbursement procedures required by federal, state, and commercial insurers will have already begun or will now begin to be implemented. External infrastructure improvements will have already begun or will now begin to be constructed and commissioned. During the reconstruction period, it is important that management teams be willing to consider and approve numerous changes, not compromise on the requirements for state-of—the-art heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning HVAC requirements and fail-safe emergency generators, and consider the installation of interstitial spaces between floors.
Section of the Stafford Act contemplates that the design of permanent repairs may incorporate approaches and elements that are intended to reduce or eliminate the damages that a facility would incur during a future, similar event FEMA, Hollier and Moerschbaecher noted that the greatest delays in securing FEMA-approval were in the two largest projects that proposed the most complex and sophisticated mitigation measures—taking approximately 8 years to secure FEMA-approval and funding of these permanent repairs and hazard mitigation measures.
Chapter 9 further discusses the post-disaster financial considerations. If capital funding is limited to the restoration of the built environment only as it existed before the disaster, what has been accomplished in reducing the vulnerabilities that have been clearly demonstrated to exist? By acknowledging the lessons learned and after-action reports following recovery, and by identifying those design solutions and best practices that will mitigate, if not eliminate, repetition of the same damage and destruction to the research enterprise, is it not ensuring—through each dollar reinvested—the creation of a disaster-resilient academic biomedical research community?
Good management and flexibility are key, and team loyalty is paramount for achieving departmental goals and objectives during the years-long recovery period. Patience and persistence are the greatest attributes for ensuring recovery from any disaster Goodwin and Donaho, Planned recovery operations should be prioritized according to the time-sensitive research activities and maximum allowable downtime identified in the business continuity plans BCPs developed and approved by the research enter-.
The re-establishment of time-sensitive functions will require specific direction in the plan regarding when, where, and how these operations will be continued and will also require identifying, housing, providing transportation for, and otherwise sustaining with food and other needed supplies the staff who will continue the required operations ASIS International, Discrete BCPs may use very diverse criteria for prioritizing the functions required to return the research enterprise to normal operations.
Supply chain risk management best practices and business continuity
The highest priorities, after providing financial and operational support for the human resources who are the heart of the research enterprise recovery, may include sharing all damage-assessment information collected prior to initiating cleanup and emergency repair activities with insurance and research sponsors, re-establishing effective internal communications to inform researchers on the status of recovery operations, relocating research program activities to alternative locations if available, and rebuilding the IT infrastructure damaged in the disaster.
Depending upon the specific circumstances, the preservation of equipment and facilities from further damage, initiating repair and restoration procurement, implementing a short- and long-term institutional financial recovery plan, and engaging directly with local, state, and federal agencies seeking assistance and collaboration are potential next actions in implementing the recovery plan.
The successful allocation of people, space, equipment, and dollars will be measured by how well time-sensitive functions were re-established within their maximum allowable downtown. A recovery management team should be charged with determining the specifics of what, when, and how resources will be deployed.
Related A Supply Chain Management Guide to Business Continuity, Chapter 8: Business Continuity Plan Documents
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